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Oracle 11g Administrator’s Guide笔记2:如何手工创建、删除

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在前一篇文章中提到阅读Oracle 11gR2 Administrator‘s Guide(文档编号E25494-01)时,简单描述了DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT参数。在Oracle 11gR2 Administrator‘s Guide文档的chapter 2 Creating and Configuring an Oracle Database章节时,提到手工建库,本文简单记录一下,如何在OEL 5.5 X86_64位环境下,手工创建及删除11.2.0.1.0的数据库,将文件放到文件系统上存放。当然,利用DBCA来建库、删库比较简单,就不再赘述了。具体操作步骤如下:

1 前提条件,操作系统上已经安装好Oracle 11gR2 的软件,其中环境变量ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracleORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1

[root@OCM11g ~]# su - oracle
OCM11g-> env | grep ORA
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1
OCM11g->

2 确认环境变量,本例中选择ORACLE_SID=manualdb,ORACLE_HOME选用原有的/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1

OCM11g-> id
uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall),1201(asmdba),1300(dba),1301(oper)
OCM11g-> uname -rm
2.6.18-194.el5 x86_64
OCM11g-> export ORACLE_SID=manualdb
OCM11g-> env | grep ORA
ORACLE_SID=manualdb
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1
OCM11g->

3 创建初始化参数文件,这里将参数文件放到系统默认的路径下,即$ORACLE_HOME/dbs,命名为initmanualdb.ora,其内容如下:

OCM11g-> cat /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/initmanualdb.ora 
db_name=manualdb
memory_target=600m
OCM11g->

简单起见,我们只在初始化参数文件中指定了db_name,memory_target这两个参数。我们知道,启动数据库实例的最少参数只需要一个db_name即可,这里选择db_name=manualdb,附加一个memory_target=600m,这个是11g的新参数,用于控制SGA+PGA的总大小。当然,也可以在参数文件中指定control_files,如果该参数被忽略的话,那么Oracle会自动在$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下创建一个名为cntrl$ORACLE_SID.dbf的控制文件。

4 准备将来存放数据文件、日志文件的路径。这两类文件的路径如下:

datafile:

OCM11g-> mkdir -p /u02/manualdb/oradata

online log:

OCM11g-> mkdir -p /u02/manualdb/onlinelog
OCM11g-> ll /u02/manualdb/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Mar 30 10:56 onlinelog
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Mar 30 10:56 oradata
OCM11g->

5 启动manualdb实例到NOMOUNT状态,其实,在该环境下,我们的控制文件尚未生成,实例至多也只能加载到NOMOUNT状态:

OCM11g-> id
uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall),1201(asmdba),1300(dba),1301(oper)
OCM11g-> env | grep ORA
ORACLE_SID=manualdb
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1
OCM11g-> sqlplus 

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri Mar 30 10:59:32 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  626327552 bytes
Fixed Size                  2215944 bytes
Variable Size             373297144 bytes
Database Buffers          243269632 bytes
Redo Buffers                7544832 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

SQL>

上述报错ORA-00205提示控制文件找不到,正是我们所预见的,因为当前控制文件还未生成,所以数据库没法MOUNT,说明数据库是NOMOUNT状态。这时,也可以看到相关的后台进程已经启动:

SQL> !
OCM11g-> ps -ef | grep ora_|grep -v grep
oracle   14885     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_manualdb
oracle   14887     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_vktm_manualdb
oracle   14891     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_gen0_manualdb
oracle   14893     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_diag_manualdb
oracle   14895     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_dbrm_manualdb
oracle   14897     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_psp0_manualdb
oracle   14899     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_dia0_manualdb
oracle   14903     1  6 11:02 ?        00:00:27 ora_mman_manualdb
oracle   14905     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:01 ora_dbw0_manualdb
oracle   14907     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_lgwr_manualdb
oracle   14909     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_ckpt_manualdb
oracle   14911     1  0 11:02 ?        00:00:00 ora_smon_manualdb
oracle   14913     1  0 11:03 ?        00:00:00 ora_reco_manualdb
oracle   14915     1  0 11:03 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmon_manualdb
oracle   14917     1  0 11:03 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmnl_manualdb
OCM11g->

6 执行下述CREATE DATABASE的命令,开始手工创建Oracle 数据库:

SQL> conn / as sysdba;
Connected.
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;
select open_mode from v$database
                      *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01507: database not mounted

SQL> CREATE DATABASE manualdb
  2     USER SYS IDENTIFIED BY oracle
  3     USER SYSTEM IDENTIFIED BY oracle
  4     LOGFILE GROUP 1 ('/u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo01a.log') SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  5             GROUP 2 ('/u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo02a.log') SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512
  6     MAXLOGFILES 5
  7     MAXLOGMEMBERS 5
  8     MAXLOGHISTORY 1
  9     MAXDATAFILES 100
 10     CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
 11     NATIONAL CHARACTER SET AL16UTF16
 12     EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
 13     DATAFILE '/u02/manualdb/oradata/system01.dbf' SIZE 300M REUSE
   SYSAUX DATAFILE '/u02/manualdb/oradata/sysaux01.dbf' SIZE 300M REUSE
   DEFAULT TABLESPACE users
      DATAFILE '/u02/manualdb/oradata/users01.dbf'
 17        SIZE 5M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED
 18     DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE tempts1
 19        TEMPFILE '/u02/manualdb/oradata/temp01.dbf'
 20        SIZE 20M REUSE
 21     UNDO TABLESPACE undotbs
 22        DATAFILE '/u02/manualdb/oradata/undotbs01.dbf'
 23        SIZE 20M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED;

Database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$database;

NAME      OPEN_MODE
--------- --------------------
MANUALDB  READ WRITE

SQL>

7 创建数据字典视图,分别执行下述脚本来完成:

SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catalog.sql
......
......
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
......
......
SQL> @?/sqlplus/admin/pupbld.sql
......
......

上述3个脚本的说明见下表:

The Scripts and descriptions

Script

Description

CATALOG.SQL

Creates the views of the data dictionary tables,

the dynamic performance views,and public synonyms

for many of the views.Grants PUBLIC access to the synonyms.

CATPROC.SQL

Runs all scripts required for or used with PL/SQL.

PUPBLD.SQL

Required for SQL*Plus. Enables SQL*Plus to disable

commands by user.

8 至此,我们完成了手工创建Oracle 数据库。

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.1.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production

5 rows selected.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$database;

NAME      OPEN_MODE
--------- --------------------
MANUALDB  READ WRITE

1 row selected.

SQL> select name from v$datafile
  2  union
  3  select name from v$controlfile
  4  union
  5  select member from v$logfile;

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/cntrlmanualdb.dbf
/u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo01a.log
/u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo02a.log
/u02/manualdb/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
/u02/manualdb/oradata/system01.dbf
/u02/manualdb/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
/u02/manualdb/oradata/users01.dbf

7 rows selected.

SQL>

9 最后,如果该数据库不需要的话。我们可以执行手工删除数据库,当然必须要将数据库启动到MOUNT RESTRICT状态来删除

如何确认实例是否是RESTRICTED MODE:

SQL> select instance_name,status,startup_time,logins from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME   STATUS       STARTUP_TIME        LOGINS
--------------- ------------ ------------------- ----------
manualdb        MOUNTED      2012/03/30 13:38:52 ALLOWED

1 row selected.

SQL> alter system enable restricted session;

System altered.

SQL> select instance_name,status,startup_time,logins from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME   STATUS       STARTUP_TIME        LOGINS
--------------- ------------ ------------------- ----------
manualdb        MOUNTED      2012/03/30 13:38:52 RESTRICTED

1 row selected.

SQL> alter system disable restricted session;

System altered.

SQL> select instance_name,status,startup_time,logins from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME   STATUS       STARTUP_TIME        LOGINS
--------------- ------------ ------------------- ----------
manualdb        MOUNTED      2012/03/30 13:38:52 ALLOWED

1 row selected.

SQL>

通过查看V$INSTANCE动态性能视图的LOGINS字段,如果该值为ALLOWED,说明实例是正常启动,并未进入RESTRICTED MODE,普通用户可以正常访问;如果该值为RESTRICTED说明是RESTRICTED MODE,即需要具有RESTRICTED SESSION系统权限的用户方可访问;

手工删除数据库:

SQL> select instance_name,status,startup_time,logins from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME   STATUS       STARTUP_TIME        LOGINS
--------------- ------------ ------------------- ----------
manualdb        MOUNTED      2012/03/30 13:38:52 ALLOWED

1 row selected.

SQL> drop database;
drop database
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-12719: operation requires database is in RESTRICTED mode

SQL> alter system enable restricted session;

System altered.

SQL> select instance_name,status,startup_time,logins from v$instance;

INSTANCE_NAME   STATUS       STARTUP_TIME        LOGINS
--------------- ------------ ------------------- ----------
manualdb        MOUNTED      2012/03/30 13:38:52 RESTRICTED

1 row selected.

SQL> drop database;

Database dropped.

Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
SQL>

此时,Oracle自动删除该数据库的所有数据文件、联机重做日志文件、控制文件以及初始化参数文件。从alert日志文件里可以看到下述信息:

Fri Mar 30 13:45:33 2012
drop database
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/oradata/system01.dbf
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/oradata/users01.dbf
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo01a.log
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/onlinelog/redo02a.log
Deleted file /u02/manualdb/oradata/temp01.dbf
Deleted file /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/snapcf_manualdb.f

10 简单总结,可见手工创建、删除数据库也很简单。当然,在第6步中执行手工建库的命令中还有诸多其它选项,比如选择OMF,这时,只要在参数文件中指定DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST参数,那么建库的命令将更加简单。

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文章标题:Oracle 11g Administrator’s Guide笔记2:如何手工创建、删除
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1 篇回应 (访客:0 篇, 博主:1 篇)

  1. Asher 2013-15-10

    今天在读Oracle Database 11g Administration Workshop I 培训教材时,其中有提到:
    1 手工删除库的命令,先 Startup restrict mount;然后 drop database;
    2 drop database命令会删除控制文件、数据文件、联机日志文件以及初始化参数文件。数据库的备份文件、映像拷贝、以及归档日志文件不会被删除。且,如果数据库是采用raw devices来存放的,那么裸设备里的文件也不会被删除。
    补充,以记之。

    #-49楼

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